Paroling Authority Self-Assessment Toolkit

References

1Andrews, D.A., J. Bonta, and J.S.Wormith. 2006. The Recent Past and Near Future of Risk and/or Need Assessment. Crime and Delinquency 52(1):7–27.

Andrews, D.A., C. Dowden, and P. Gendreau. 1999. Clinically Relevant and Psychologically Informed Approaches to Reduced Reoffending: A Meta-Analytic Study of Human Service, Risk, Need, Responsivity, and Other Concerns in Justice Contexts. Unpub­lished manuscript. Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University.

Dowden, C. 1998.  A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Risk, Need and Responsivity Principles and Their Importance Within the Rehabilitation Debate. Master's thesis, Carleton University.

Gendreau, P., French, S., & Taylor, A. (2002). What works (what doesn't) revised 2002: The principles of effective correctional treatment. Unpublished manuscript, University of New Brunswick, St. John, New Brunswick, Canada.



2Burke, P., with Bellassai, J., and Toborg, A. (1992). Parole Violation and Revocation:  Lessons for Policy Development.  U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections, Washington, D.C.

Burke, P., with Adams, L., Kaufman, G., and Ney, B.  (1987).  Structuring Parole Decision-making:  Lessons from Technical Assistance in Nine States.  U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections, Washington, D.C.



3Burdon W.M, Roll J.M, Prendergast M.L, and Rawson R.A. Drug courts and contingency management. Journal of Drug Issues. 2001;31:73–90.

Griffith J.D, Rowan-Szal G.A, Roark R.R, Simpson D.D. Contingency management in outpatient methadone treatment: A meta-analysis. Drug & Alcohol Dependence. 2000;58:55–66.

Higgins, S. and Silverman, K.  Motivating Illicit Drug Abusers to Change Their Behavior: Research
on Contingency Management Interventions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1999.

Marlowe D.B, Kirby K.C. (1999).  Effective use of sanctions in drug courts: Lessons from behavioral research. National Drug Court Institute Review. 1999;2:1–31.

Murphy, J. G., Vuchinich, R. E, & Simpson, C. E. (2001). Delayed reward and cost discounting. Psychological Record, 51, 571-588.



4Brennan, P., & Mednick, S. (1994). Learning theory approach to the deterrence of criminal recidivism. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103(3), 430-440.

Deci, Edward L.; Koestner, Richard; Ryan, Richard M. A meta-analytic review of experiments examining the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Bulletin, Vol 125(6), Nov 1999, 627-668.

Grasmack, H.G., & Bryjak, G.J. (1980). The Deterrent Effect of Perceived Severity of
Punishment. Social Forces, 59, 471-491.

Higgins, S. and Silverman, K.  Motivating Illicit Drug Abusers to Change Their Behavior: Research on Contingency Management Interventions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1999.

Marlowe, D., Festinger, D., Dugosh, K., Arabia, P., and Kirby. K.  An Effectiveness Trial of Contingency Management in a Felony Preadjudication Drug Court.  Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 2008 Winter; 41(4): 565–577.

Nichols, J. and Ross, H.  (1990).  The effectiveness of legal sanctions in dealing with drinking drivers. Alcohol, Drugs and Driving 6(2):33 55.

Paternoster, R. 1989."Decisions To Participate in and Desist From Four Types of Common Delinquency: Deterrence and the Rational Choice Perspective." Law and Society Review 23(1):7–40.

Petry, N.M., Martin, B., Cooney, J.L., & Kranzler, H.R. (2000). Give them prizes and they will come: Contingency management for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 250-257.

Petry, N.M., Petrakis, I., Trevisan, L., Wiredu, L., Boutros, N., Martin, B. & Kosten, T.R. (2001).  Contingency management interventions: From research to practice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 694-702.



5Harrell, A., & Roman, J. (2001). Reducing drug use and crime among offenders: The impact of graduated sanctions. Journal of Drug Issues, 31, 207-232.

Hawken, A., & Kleiman, M. (2009). Managing drug involved probationers with swift and certain sanctions: Evaluating Hawaii's HOPE. Washington DC: National Institute of Justice.

Marlowe, D., Festinger, D., Dugosh, K., Arabia, P., and Kirby. K.  An Effectiveness Trial of Contingency Management in a Felony Preadjudication Drug Court.  Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 2008 Winter; 41(4): 565–577.



6Paternoster, R., R. Brame, R. Bachman, and L.W. Sherman. 1997. "Do Fair Procedures Matter? The Effect of Procedural Justice on Spouse Assault." Law and Society Review 31:163–204.



7Tyler, Tom R. (1990). Why People Obey the Law. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press.



8Von Hirsch, A. 1993. Censure and Sanctions. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.



9Langan, P., and D. Levin. 2002. Recidivism of Prisoners Released in 1994. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Rosenfeld, R., J. Wallman, and R. Fornango. (2005). The contribution of ex-prisoners to crime rates. In J. Travis and C. Visher (Eds.), Prisoner reentry and crime in America (pp. 80-104). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Solomon, A., V. Kachnowski, and A. Bhati. (2005). Does parole work? Analyzing the impact of postprison supervison on rearrest outcomes. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.



10Bonta, J.,T. Rugge,T. Scott, G. Bourgon, and A.Yessine (2008). "Exploring the Black Box of Community Supervision." Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 47(3):248–70.



11Andrews, D.A. 2007. "Principles of Effective Correctional Programs." In L.L. Motiuk and R.C. Serin, eds., Compendium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming. Ottawa, Canada: Correctional Service of Canada.

Andrews, D. A., Bonta, J., & Wormith, S. J. (2006). The recent past and near future of risk and/or need assessment. Crime and Delinquency, 52, 7-27.

Andrews, D.A., and J. Bonta (2007). Risk-Need-Responsivity Model for Offender Assessment and Rehabilitation (2007–06). Ottawa, Canada: Public Safety Canada.

Andrews, D.A., and C. Dowden (2007).  The Risk-Need-Responsivity Model of Assessment in Human Service and Prevention and Corrections: Crime-Prevention Jurisprudence. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 49(4):439–64.

Andrews, D.A., C. Dowden, and P. Gendreau (1999).  Clinically Relevant and Psychologically Informed Approaches to Reduced Reoffending: A Meta-Analytic Study of Human Service, Risk, Need, Responsivity, and Other Concerns in Justice Contexts. Unpub­lished manuscript. Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University.

Bonta, J. (2007). Offender Assessment: General Issues and Considerations. In L.L. Motiuk and R.C. Serin (eds.), Compen­dium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming. Ottawa, Canada: Correctional Service Canada. 

Dowden, C. (1998).  A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Risk, Need and Responsivity Principles and Their Importance Within the Rehabilitation Debate.  Master's thesis, Carleton University.

Gendreau, P., C. Goggin, and T. Little (1996). Predicting Adult Offender Recidivism: What Works! 1996–07. Ottawa, Canada: Solicitor General of Canada.

Lipsey, M.W., and F.T. Cullen (2007).  The Effectiveness of Correctional Rehabilitation: A Review of Systematic Reviews. Annual Review of Law and Social Science 3:297–320.



12 Andrews, D.A., and J. Bonta (2007). Risk-Need-Responsivity Model for Offender Assessment and Rehabilitation (2007–06). Ottawa, Canada: Public Safety Canada.

Cullen, F. T., & Gendreau, P. (2000). Assessing correctional rehabilitation: Policy, practice, and prospects. In J. Horney (Ed.), Criminal justice 2000: Vol. 3—Policies, processes, and decisions of the criminal justice system (pp. 109–175). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Gendreau, P., C. Goggin, F.T. Cullen, and D.Andrews (2001). The Effects of Community Sanctions and Incarceration on Recidi­vism. In L.L. Motiuk and R.C. Serin (eds.), Compendium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming: Volume 1. Ottawa, Canada: Correctional Service of Canada.

Lowenkamp, C. T. & Latessa, E. J. (2005). Increasing the effectiveness of correctional programming through the risk principle: Identifying offenders for residential placement. Criminology and Public Policy, 4(2), 501–528.

Lowenkamp, C. T., Latessa, E. J., & Holsinger, A. M. (2004). Empirical evidence on the importance of training and experience in using the Level of Service Inventory-Revised. Topics in Community Corrections, 49-53.



13Bazemore, G., and M. Schiff (2004). Juvenile Justice Reform and Restorative Justice: Building Theory and Policy from Practice. Portland, OR: Willan Publishing.

Bonta, J.,T. Rugge,T. Scott, G. Bourgon, and A.Yessine (2008). "Exploring the Black Box of Community Supervision." Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 47(3):248–70.

Dowden, C., and D.A. Andrews (2004). The Importance of Staff Practice in Delivering Effective Correctional Treatment:A Meta-Analytic Review of Core Correctional Practice. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 48(2):203–14.

Henggeler, S. W., Schoenwald, S. K., Borduin, C. M., Rowland, M. D., & Cunningham, P. B.(1998). Multisystemic treatment of antisocial behavior in children and adolescents. New York, NY: Guilford.

Lind, E.A., and T.R.Tyler (1988). The Social Psychology of Procedural Justice. New York: Springer.

MacDuffie, J.P., and S. Helper (2006). Collaboration in Supply Chains: With and Without Trust. In C. Heckscher and P.S. Adler (eds.), The Firm as a Collaborative Community: Reconstructing Trust in the Knowledge Economy. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 417–66.

Tyler,T.R. (2000).  Social Justice: Outcome and Procedure. International Journal of Psychology 35(2):117–25.

Tyler,T.R. (2007). Procedural Justice and the Courts. Court Review 44:26–31.

Tyler,T.R., and Y.J. Huo (2002). Trust in the Law: Encouraging Public Cooperation With the Police and Courts. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Umbreit, M.S. 1998."Restorative Justice Through Victim-Offender Mediation: A Multi-Site Assessment." Western Criminology Review 1(1).

Washington State Institute for Public Policy (2004). Outcome Evaluation of Washington State's Research-Based Programs for Juvenile Offenders. Olympia,WA:Washington State Institute for Public Policy.



14Andrews, D.A., and J. Bonta (2006). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, Fourth Edition. Newark, NJ: Anderson Publishing Company.

Cullen, F.T., and P. Gendreau (2000). Assessing Correctional Rehabilitation: Policy, Practice, and Prospects. In J. Horney (ed.), Criminal Justice 2000: Policies, Processes, and Decisions of the Criminal Justice System. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice.

Latessa, E., F. Cullen, and P. Gendreau (2002). Beyond Correctional Quackery—Professionalism and the Possibility of Effective Treatment. Federal Probation 66(2):43–49.

National Research Council, Committee on Community Supervision and Desistance from Crime.(2007). Parole, desistance from crime, and community integration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Petersilia, J. (2004). What works in prisoner reentry? Reviewing and questioning the evidence. Federal Probation, 68(2), 4-8.

Petersilia, J. (2007). Employ behavioral contracting for 'earned discharge' parole. Criminology and Public Policy, 6(4), 807–814.

Taxman, F., D. Soule, and A. Gelb (1999). Graduated Sanctions: Stepping Into Accountable Systems and Offenders. Prison Journal 79(2):182–204.



15 Dowden, C., and D.A.Andrews. 2004. The Importance of Staff Practice in Delivering Effective Correctional Treatment:A Meta-Analytic Review of Core Correctional Practice.  International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 48(2):203–14.

Hubble, Mark A., Barry L. Duncan, and Scott D. Miller (1999). The heart and soul of change: What works in therapy. Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.



16Andrews, D.A. 2007. Principles of Effective Correctional Programs. In L.L. Motiuk and R.C. Serin, eds., Compendium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming. Ottawa, Canada: Correctional Service of Canada.

Andrews, D.A., I. Zinger, R.D. Hoge, J. Bonta, P. Gendreau, and F.T. Cullen. 1990. Does Correctional Treatment Work? A Clinically Relevant and Psychologically Informed Meta-Analysis. Criminol­ogy 28:369–404.



17Andrews, D.A. (2007).  Principles of Effective Correctional Programs. In L.L. Motiuk and R.C. Serin, eds., Compendium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming. Ottawa, Canada: Correctional Service of Canada.

Andrews, D.A., and J. Bonta (2007). Risk-Need-Responsivity Model for Offender Assessment and Rehabilitation (2007–06). Ottawa, Canada: Public Safety Canada.

Andrews, D.A., J. Bonta, and J.S.Wormith (2006). The Recent Past and Near Future of Risk and/or Need Assessment. Crime and Delinquency 52(1):7–27.

Andrews, D.A., and C. Dowden (2007). The Risk-Need-Responsivity Model of Assessment in Human Service and Prevention and Corrections: Crime-Prevention Jurisprudence. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 49(4):439–64.

Andrews, D.A., C. Dowden, and P. Gendreau (1999).  Clinically Relevant and Psychologically Informed Approaches to Reduced Reoffending:A Meta-Analytic Study of Human Service, Risk, Need, Responsivity, and Other Concerns in Justice Contexts.  Unpub­lished manuscript. Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University.

Bonta, J. (2007). Offender Assessment: General Issues and Considerations. In L.L. Motiuk and R.C. Serin (eds.), Compen­dium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming. Ottawa, Canada: Correctional Service Canada.

Dowden, C. (1998). A Meta-Analytic Examination of the Risk, Need and Responsivity Principles and Their Importance Within the Rehabilitation Debate. Master's thesis, Carleton University.

Gendreau, P., C. Goggin, and T. Little (1996). Predicting Adult Offender Recidivism: What Works! 1996–07. Ottawa, Canada: Solicitor General of Canada.

Lipsey, M.W., and F.T. Cullen (2007)."The Effectiveness of Correctional Rehabilitation: A Review of Systematic Reviews." Annual Review of Law and Social Science 3:297–320.



18Gendreau, P.,T. Little, and C. Goggin (1996).  A Meta-Analysis of Adult Offender Recidivism: What Works? Criminology 34:575–607.



19Andrews, D.A. (2007).  Principles of Effective Correctional Programs. In L.L. Motiuk and R.C. Serin, eds., Compendium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming. Ottawa, Canada: Correctional Service of Canada.

Andrews, D.A., and J. Bonta (2007). Risk-Need-Responsivity Model for Offender Assessment and Rehabilitation (2007–06). Ottawa, Canada: Public Safety Canada.

Andrews, D.A., J. Bonta, and J.S.Wormith (2006). The Recent Past and Near Future of Risk and/or Need Assessment. Crime and Delinquency 52(1):7–27.

Andrews, D.A., and C. Dowden (2007). The Risk-Need-Responsivity Model of Assessment in Human Service and Prevention and Corrections: Crime-Prevention Jurisprudence. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice 49(4):439–64.

Andrews, D.A., C. Dowden, and P. Gendreau (1999).  Clinically Relevant and Psychologically Informed Approaches to Reduced Reoffending: A Meta-Analytic Study of Human Service, Risk, Need, Responsivity, and Other Concerns in Justice Contexts. Unpub­lished manuscript. Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University.

Bonta, J. 2007. Offender Assessment: General Issues and Considerations. In L.L. Motiuk and R.C. Serin (eds.), Compen­dium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming. Ottawa, Canada: Correctional Service Canada.

Dowden, C. (1998). Clinically Relevant and Psychologically Informed Approaches to Reduced Reoffending: A Meta-Analytic Study of Human Service, Risk, Need, Responsivity, and Other Concerns in Justice Contexts.  Unpub­lished manuscript. Ottawa, Canada: Carleton University.

Bonta, J. (2007). Offender Assessment: General Issues and Considerations. In L.L. Motiuk and R.C. Serin (eds.), Compen­dium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming. Ottawa, Canada: Correctional Service Canada.

Gendreau, P., C. Goggin, and T. Little (1996). Predicting Adult Offender Recidivism: What Works! 1996–07. Ottawa, Canada: Solicitor General of Canada.

Lipsey, M.W., and F.T. Cullen (2007). The Effectiveness of Correctional Rehabilitation: A Review of Systematic Reviews. Annual Review of Law and Social Science 3:297–320.



20Grasmack, H.G., and G.J. Bryjak (1980). The Deterrent Effect of Perceived Severity of Punishment. Social Forces 59:471–91.

Nichols, J., and H.L. Ross (1990). Effectiveness of Legal Sanctions in Dealing With Drinking Drivers.  Alcohol, Drugs, and Driving 6(2):33–60.

Paternoster, R. (1989). Decisions To Participate in and Desist From Four Types of Common Delinquency: Deterrence and the Rational Choice Perspective. Law and Society Review 23(1):7–40.

Paternoster, R., R. Brame, R. Bachman, and L.W. Sherman (1997). Do Fair Procedures Matter? The Effect of Procedural Justice on Spouse Assault.  Law and Society Review 31:163–204.

Rhine, E. (1993). Reclaiming Offender Accountability: Intermediate Sanctions for Probation and Parole Violators. Laurel, MD: American Correctional Association.

Von Hirsch, A. (1993). Censure and Sanctions. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.



21Andrews, D.A., and J. Bonta (1998). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, Second Edition. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Company.

Cullen, F. T., & Gendreau, P. (2000). Assessing correctional rehabilitation: Policy, practice, and prospects. In J. Horney (Ed.), NIJ criminal justice 2000: Changes in decision making and discretion in the criminal justice system (pp. 109-175). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Drake, E. K., & Barnoski, R. (2008). Increasing earned release from prison: Impacts of 2003 law on recidivism and criminal justice costs. Olympia, WA: Washington State Institute for Public Policy.

Gendreau, P., and C. Goggin (1996). Principles of Effective Correctional Programming. Forum on Corrections Research 8(3).

Higgins, S. and Silverman, K. Motivating Illicit Drug Abusers to Change Their Behavior: Research on Contingency Management Interventions. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 1999.

Latessa, E., F. Cullen, and P. Gendreau (2002). Beyond Correc­tional Quackery—Professionalism and the Possibility of Effective Treatment. Federal Probation 66(2):43–49.

National Research Council, Committee on Community Supervision and Desistance from Crime.(2007). Parole, desistance from crime, and community integration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

Petersilia, J. (2007). Employ behavioral contracting for 'earned discharge' parole. Criminology and Public Policy, 6(4), 807–814.

Petersilia, J. (2004). What works in prisoner reentry? Reviewing and questioning the evidence. Federal Probation, 68(2), 4-8.

Taxman, F., D. Soule, and A. Gelb (1999). Graduated Sanctions: Stepping Into Accountable Systems and Offenders. Prison Journal 79(2):182–204.

Wodahl, E. J., Garland, B., Culhane, S. E., & McCarty, W. P. (2011). Utilizing Behavioral Interventions to Improve Supervision Outcomes in Community-Based Corrections. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 38(4), 386-405.



22National Research Council, Committee on Community Supervision and Desistance from Crime. (2007). Parole, desistance from crime, and community integration. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.



23Burke, P. (2011).  The Future of Parole as a Key Partner in Assuring Public Safety. US Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections, Washington, DC. 



24Andrews, D.A., & Carvell, C. (1998). Core Correctional Treatment—Core Correctional Supervision and Counseling: Theory, Research, Assessment and Practice. Ottawa, ON: Carleton University.

Andrews, D.A. & Kiessling, J.J. (1980). Program structure and effective correctional practices. A summary of CaVIC research. (pp. 441–463). In R.R. Ross & P. Gendreau (Eds.), Effective correctional treatment. Toronto: Butterworths.

Andrews, D.A. (2007). Principles of Effective Correctional Programs. In L.L. Motiuk and R.C. Serin, eds., Compendium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming. Ottawa, Canada: Correctional Service of Canada.

Andrews, D.A., and J. Bonta (1998). The Psychology of Criminal Conduct, Second Edition. Cincinnati, OH:Anderson Publishing Company.

Dowden, C., and D.A.Andrews (2004). The Importance of Staff Practice in Delivering Effective Correctional Treatment:A Meta-Analytic Review of Core Correctional Practice. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 48(2):203–14.



25Bonta, J.,T. Rugge,T. Scott, G. Bourgon, and A.Yessine (2008). Exploring the Black Box of Community Supervision. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 47(3):248–70.



26Peters,T.J., and N. Austin (1986). A Passion for Excellence: The Leadership Difference. New York: Warner Books.

Peters,T.J., and R.H.Waterman (2004). In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best Run Companies. New York: HarperCollins Business.

Senge, P. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, Second Edition. New York: Doubleday.