Use of Valid Actuarial Assessments of Risk and Needs


Andrews, D.A., and J. Bonta (2007). Risk-Need-Responsivity Model for Offender Assessment and Rehabilitation (2007–06). Ottawa, Canada: Public Safety Canada.

Burke, P. and J. Austin (2008). Pennsylvania Board of Probation and Parole:  A Report on Board Initiatives to Strengthen Decisionmaking Policy and Practice.  Silver Spring, MD;  The Center for Effective Public Policy.

Burke, P.  (ed).  2003.  A Handbook for New Parole Board Members, Association of Paroling Authorities International and the National Institute of Corrections.,accessed July 14, 2014.

Carter, M. (2011). Evidence-Based Policy, Practice, and Decisionmaking. Implications for Paroling Authorities. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Corrections,, accessed August 3, 2014.

Cullen, F. T., and Gendreau, P. (2000). Assessing correctional rehabilitation: Policy, practice, and prospects. In J. Horney (Ed.), Criminal justice 2000: Vol. 3—Policies, processes, and decisions of the criminal justice system (pp. 109–175). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.

Gendreau, P., C. Goggin, F.T. Cullen, and D. Andrews (2001). The Effects of Community Sanctions and Incarceration on Recidivism. In L.L. Motiuk and R.C. Serin (eds.), Compendium 2000 on Effective Correctional Programming: Volume 1. Ottawa, Canada: Correctional Service of Canada.

Lowenkamp, C.T., E.J. Latessa, and A.M. Holsinger (2006). "The Risk Principle in Action: What Have We Learned From 13,676 Offenders and 97 Correctional Programs? Crime and Delinquency 52:77-93.

Serin, R. (2011). Pre-Reading Material (ATRA & Decision Framework). Parole Board Canada: Carleton University., last accessed October 6, 2014.

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